Wednesday, December 12, 2012


The Government of New South Wales (NSW) has undertaken to reintroduce trams to Sydney’s Eastern suburbs. For many stuck in traffic and contemplating lost productivity in the East this has been a long time coming. But few know just how long.

The NSW Liberal Party originally proposed its policy of a new light rail “rapid transit” system for Sydney's Eastern Suburbs in 1959.

I’m going to briefly describe what that policy was, its origin, and key differences with today’s policy.


In 1958, Sydney was in the middle of the post-war boom. Sydney was infrastructure rich, with major City building projects (like the harbour bridge and city electric railway) largely complete in the 1930s, and Waragamba Dam well under way.

But Sydney, like all western cities, was changing rapidly. Now attainable automobiles, cheap fuel, free road access and parking, meant that living near a tram or train line didn’t matter anymore.  It was the start of the sprawl era, when there always seemed room for one more car on the road. Put simply, the total cost of driving became much less than that of using transit. Formerly efficient, nucleated cities became dispersed, tangled, and car dependent, and transit patronage collapsed.

Australian mode share: Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, Information sheet 31

Trams had become the enemy of cars. They took up road space. (We now know that while trams moved 20,000 people per hour per lane, cars move only 1,200). They stopped to transact passengers. They looked and felt very, very old, with open sides in most, and no doors on the enclosed ones. They hadn’t reached trendy-old yet like San Francisco’s cable cars; they were more monorail-old. Yesterday’s solution blocking tomorrow’s progress.

The incumbent (Labor) Government had committed to shutting down the Sydney tram system, with significant closures in 1958.

However, there was far from political consensus. Even though Australia was amidst car-fervour, with a now 10-year old domestic auto industry,  some recognised that the tram system Sydney was getting rid of was in many respects different to the former systems of say Los Angeles and London.  There were street protests, then very unusual in Australia, to have the trams reintroduced, and these protests were successful to a very limited extent, such as in the case of re-introduction of trams to Watsons Bay after the first closure.

Unlike other cities' predominantly street-based systems, Sydney’s Eastern suburbs had a tram system that was substantially separated from road traffic. Dedicated corridors right out to extremities like La Parouse, Bronte and Coogee, meant that Sydney’s eastern trams enjoyed the kind of separation more familiar to rapid transit and metro systems.

Light rail trams on ANZAC Parade, Sydney in 1958 (source: J.R.Caldwell)

Light rail tram on dedicated corridor at Maroubra Junction, Sydney in 1958 (source: J.R. Caldwell)

This provided the opportunity to do something similar to what progressive North American cities like Toronto, Boston and San Francisco were doing. Take existing infrastructure, improve the city bottlenecks, and create a step change in passenger experience with new rolling-stock and faster services.

Of course this was in 1958, and most people had no idea what other cities were doing. Long before affordable international air travel (this was the year the first Boeing 707 was sold), only two years after the first broadcast TV in Australia, and 40 years before consumer internet.

One person I knew well did however have a very keen interest in international transport practice at this time. My late father, J.R.(Rob) Caldwell, at the age of 22, studying economics, and then Transport Officer of Sydney University’s Representative Council, devised a plan to re-invent light rail in Sydney’s East and South East.


What came to be billed in the media and by the Liberal Party as the “Caldwell Plan” (original here) was a plan to:

  • Retain all the physical tramlines and corridors to the eastern suburbs;
  • Bypass worsening CBD road congestion by going underground: extend Bradfield’s disused St James tunnel from under the War Memorial into Oxford Street, and then join a new cut-and-cover tunnel running beneath Oxford and Flinders streets to join the existing separated right-of-way; and
  • User experience technological step change: Replace all trams with PCC rapid transit trams, double the speed of existing trams, and double the speed of then existing buses (consistent with the Toronto experience).
There was also an (un-costed) but then plausible tunnel suggested as an option for analysis under Fitzroy and Foveaux Streets from Anzac Parade to Central Railway.

The currently disused St James tunnel under Sydney, proposed to be used to get "rapid transit" light rail out of city traffic

The "Caldwell Plan" map. Source: A Plan for Introduction of a Rapid Transit System for the Eastern and South Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, J.R.Caldwell, 1958

Though we take many of the then proposed innovations for granted it is worth contemplating what was proposed within the context of the time:

  • Wooden trams being replaced with aluminium and stainless steel (largely unseen in Australia at the time- the stuff planes and space rockets were made of), 
  • Air conditioning (the first car with air conditioning in Australia came about 15 years later, the first commuter bus almost 30 years later), 
  • Automatic doors (at that time none of Sydney's trains or trams had automatic doors, and buses had an open rear "platform" where passengers could- and did- fall straight out the back into traffic)
What might have been in St James disused platforms: PCC rapid transit trams in Newark Subway, NJ, USA (thanks Basil Hancock for the tip on this example. source:

The core functional aim of the plan was to reduce travel times to the East, make the journey more comfortable and appealing, and extend the life of assets that were otherwise unused, or proposed to be stranded or retired. The principle was that this would offer a far more attractive alternative to the private motor car than a motor bus.

Unusually for an unsolicited proposal from a 22 year old student, the then Labor Government undertook to review the plan in detail. You can read the (subsequently leaked) Departmental response to Cahill’s Cabinet here.

The bureaucracy, being the same one that had always advised that trams should be removed, was no different in opinion on this occasion, and sought to discredit the proposal by challenging rolling stock costs, and claiming that one-man operation was impossible (and thus operations costs were largely unable to be realised). In 1958 all trams and buses required both a driver and a conductor, the idea of a vehicle operated by a single person was a complete anathema to a political party aligned with the conductors' union.

It was perhaps for this reason that the "right", economically liberal, side of politics saw appeal in the plan. Increased productivity, lower operating costs.

Going from the unusual to the extraordinary, after the ruling Labor Cahill Government's rejection of the plan in December 1958, the Liberal opposition took up the plan as its policy centrepiece for the East.

The Liberal Party's 1959 campaign flyer for the seat of Bondi, showing the proposed light rail cars

Typical press coverage of the plan (Sun-Herald, 8th March 1959)

At this time, the Eastern Suburbs Railway had been indefinitely postponed. The Liberals successfully leveraged this to emphasise that the east was going to experience a transport downgrade with the removal of trams. However these electroal seats were ones that were dominated by the Labor party, and were always going to be a tough win.

The Liberals were defeated by Cahill, and the closure of the Sydney's trams and ripping-out of infrastructure continued as planned.

The former dedicated Bondi tram corridor,  with new blocks of flats built on it after its sale to developers (photo: J.R.Caldwell, 1972)

Subsequently, the Eastern Suburbs Railway, which the NSW Labor Party had contended in the 1959 election would serve the areas of the South East no longer served by trams, was never built to Randwick as proposed, and was only constructed part-way to Bondi Junction 20 years later.


Much has changed since 1959. Not the least of these changes were incremental Government sales of former transit corridors, including those to Bondi and Coogee, for property development.  Roads and parking have consumed most of the difference, with one small part left in the service of transit adjacent to Anzac Parade through the Showground and Moorepark precinct.

Similarly key depot and workshop space on the Eastern corridor, like Randwick Workshops, and South Dowling Street Depot (which housed 345 trams) were also sold for development.

These sales and redevelopments continued right up to the end of the previous NSW Government in 2010, with the redevelopment of the former Randwick Racecourse marshalling yards.

This presents significant additional costs and challenges. However several potential corridors remain, and the congestion cost and demand in the east today represents an insurmountable case that gridlocked buses have failed as a long-term solution. The policies of the 60s are now manifesting themselves in a less efficient and less liveable city.

It is interesting to compare Anzac Parade today with the scene previously. Gone are the trams transporting up to 20,000 people per hour. In their place, about 10 parked cars, transporting zero. meanwhile a bus stands stationary in traffic belching carbon emissions into the suburban air.

Anzac Parade today, parked cars stand where trams once ran (source: Google StreetView)


It is evident the geographic extent of today's proposal is less than the 1959 one (understandable given the loss of corridors),  but the key differences are less obvious.

The proposed routes enter the city at street level, and therefore are exposed to (and contribute to) intersection delays. The route is also some 2km longer than both existing bus routes and the 1959 proposal. The focus is presently travelling to Sydney Central Station, on the southern fringe of the down town area. The George Street (CBD) component of the line is presently envisaged as a "stage 2".

Sydney Light Rail Strategic plan options via Surry Hills (source: NSW Government
While this may provide an excellent rail connection service for students of UNSW and visitors to the Prince of Wales Hospital, it does very little to serve the full-fare and tax-paying, income generating workers commuting to and from the city.

It is interesting to contemplate how the focus has disolved over the course of 54 years. In 1959 the objectives were clear: shorter travel times, greater comfort, higher capacity. I'm not sure what the objectives of the present proposal are, but fundamental route configuration suggests it is none of these things. Longer CBD travel times, interchange inconvenience, and a capacity bottleneck in George Street are all likely impacts of the present proposal.

I'm looking forward to seeing the detailed evaluation. It's a blend of both the dispassionate operations engineer and sentimental curiosity in me, but I would have liked to have seen the 1959 policy at least considered as an option.

Thursday, December 6, 2012


TLDR Summary

  • Many people don’t know that many doors to flats (units/ apartments) in Australia contain very dangerous levels of asbestos
  • The asbestos in doors is concealed under timber and there are no features that identify a door containing asbestos from one that does not
  • It is common to drill, bore and chisel doors out to fit locks and other door hardware. These processes release high levels of asbestos dust.
  • There is no safe level of asbestos exposure, 35% of people who die of mesothelioma cannot recall ever having been exposed to asbestos
  • The risk that doors present greatly exceeds that of most other asbestos products and yet awareness of asbestos in doors is low
  • Door hardware manufacturers, Standards Agencies (which gave mandate for asbestos doors) and governments have a duty of care to spread awareness of asbestos risks when fitting door hardware or otherwise working with doors containing asbestos.
  • There should be a legal obligation for building owners to test and replace all asbestos filled doors over some time period
  • All door hardware (e.g. locks, hinges, peep holes, etc) manufacturers/ importers should print warnings (or be required to print warnings) on the common use of asbestos in doors in Australia
  • This is a call to action for door hardware manufacturers and importers to raise awareness of risks that users and installers of their products expose themselves to.

Example of exposed asbestos door core (source:


This is completely off topic for me. I recently inadvertently exposed myself to a substantial quantity (some 60 CCs) of asbestos dust. It arose from the simple, and seemingly innocuous process of installing a door lock. I had previously been unaware that asbestos had been used in doors- and would never have expected to find it within the lock fitting region of a door.

A mundane, minor DIY job, and yet one that exposed me to the perfect setup to inhale finely cut dust issuing from a speed bore as it cut through what appeared to be wood. No doubt an event frequently and unwittingly repeated throughout Australia, contributing to the 35% and growing share of mesothelioma deaths where the victim cannot recall a source of asbestos exposure.

Mesothelioma, the terminal and untreatable cancer caused by asbestos, has an approximately 20-year gestation, and so it is often difficult to track the original source and cause. While we are accustomed to hearing of deaths of asbestos-handling workers, increasingly people with only incidental exposure are having their lives taken prematurely.  The recent death of incidentally exposed Australian mountaineer Licoln Hall  illustrates this only too well.

I have always been particularly careful to protect myself from asbestos dust. I’ve even lectured builders on the subject. Cladding, concealed walls, vinyl tiles, appliance electrical wiring, old clutch pads and brake shoes. All of these I knew of.

Bizarrely, I was never aware of the asbestos in doors. I am now, and I want to make sure that when someone else types Padde Doors or Fire Control Pty Ltd into Google, they immediately know they’re dealing with asbestos.

What Happened to Me

My next-door neighbour had been recently robbed. The robber broke in by picking a standard door lock. My neighbour responded by having a second (more secure) lock fitted, and suggested I do likewise. I thought, "that makes sense, I will". So I got myself a new security lock.

Fitting a lock is pretty straight-forward. No matter the kind of lock, they all require some quite big holes to be made in the door. Some require a couple of big round holes, other, as in my case, require a mortice (or square hole) to be cut out of the door’s inner edge.

So, following the manufacturers guide, I chiselled a rebate for the lock face. So far, so good. All timber. I then drilled four adjacent 5/8” holes, each 4” deep with a speed bore, at eye level, ensuring the bore was true and square. Timber swarf and dust came issuing out. Everything looked normal. What I hadn’t noticed, in the dimming afternoon light, was that the texture of the dust (still mixed with fragments of wood) had changed.

When I went to brush it off my shirt and sweep it out of the carpet I noticed some of the dust stuck into the pile. This was not wood dust. There was grey amongst the brown. I shone the light of my iphone into my freshly bored mortice, and to my surprise I noticed the wood on the door’s edge was only about one-and-a-half inches (35mm) deep, and the rest (60mm) was a whitish-grey gypsum-ish colour.

The worst immediately occurred to me. It was a door rated for fire against the Australian Standard. It was made in the 1980s. The dust I had been working with for the last hour, the dust in the air I breathed, on my shirt and in my carpet was probably asbestos.

In a state of shock I turned to google. “Padde Doors” nothing. “Fire Systems Pty Ltd” nothing relevant. “Asbestos door” bingo. My eyes skipping through the results with increasing distress, I quickly learned that doors on flats (units/ apartments) in Australia and the United States had been systematically fitted with asbestos filled doors in the period 1960-1990.

The next morning I took a sample of the core to a testing laboratory in Sydney, and they confirmed that asbestos was indeed present. Both white and the more dangerous grey asbestos.

I was overcome with a sense of pathetic powerlessness and fate. Have I just destined myself for a premature, agonising death in 20 years, joining the late Mr Hall?

What I found

Between about 1960 and 1990 it was common practice to fit flats (units/ apartments) in Australia with asbestos-filled front doors. There are many tens of thousands of flats either built or renovated in this period throughout our cities.

There are no distinguishing features on these doors, such as labels, which would indicate the presence of asbestos, as opposed to say a solid timber door, fibreglass or gypsum.

The hazards are mentioned in some cases studies (like this example from South Australia) but are hardly publicised in Australia, as evidenced by Google results.

My most shocking discovery was just how dangerous these doors are. SafeWork Australia, under the auspices of the Attorney General’s Department, conducted several typical activities on asbestos containing materials, and carefully sampled the level of asbestos released into the surroundings. They reported results in the below table:

From “Asbestos Exposure and Compliance Study of Construction and Maintenance Workers” SafeWork Australia, February 2010, 

Typical work on an asbestos-cored door exposed workers to around ten-times the asbestos arising from most other typical source of asbestos dust.

This is in part due to the sheer volume of asbestos within the thin wooden casing, and in part due to the kind of work one is likely to do on a door (e.g. use a hole saw to install a lock).

After years of wearing dust masks to drill a hole in fibro, while containing swarf with a wet rag, I realised I had just exposed myself to more asbestos than I had encountered in my whole life in controlled situations.

What I find particularly disturbing is how insidious this threat is. Unlike vinyl tiles, fibro sheeting, and appliance wire insulation, the asbestos in a door is not visible and is not self evident. In fact it is convincingly concealed beneath a pleasant looking wooden skin. Bizarrely, though they ran an edge bead 35mm, the designers did not even make an effort to run solid timber to the depth where locks are normally installed: they expected installers to cut through the asbestos!

Disturbingly, a growing proportion of people suffering demise by mesothelioma were either incidentally exposed (i.e. not in the course of a persistent source) or cannot recall being exposed at all.

How is it that something that the Attorney General’s Department knows is such an acute risk is going seemingly untreated?

Action That Can be Taken Now

In the first instance, it seems urgently important to build awareness of this risk. What better way than to target the information to the moment it’s needed- when people are working on doors.  There are two actions which would be effective and can be implemented in short order (perhaps you can think of others and suggest them in the comments):

Door hardware (including lock, hinge, peep hole) manufacturers and importers should place warnings on all their products advising installers of the risks of cutting holes in doors, and the precautions that should be taken should those doors be suspected of containing asbestos. Government has a role to ensure this happens if there is an unwillingness to exert this basic level of moral responsibility.

Building owners should be required to audit and identify (by a steel plaque or similar) all doors that contain asbestos. At present there is no way to distinguish a door containing asbestos from one which contains gypsum/ fibreglass, other than testing a sample of the core at a special laboratory.

The personal burden

I comfort myself by thinking “just as well I recognised it, and only exposed myself to it for an hour, and didn’t vacuum it out of the carpet thus distributing it throughout my flat and innocent bystanders lungs as well”.

After spending several hundred dollars on lab tests, special wet carpet cleaning, and continuing to ponder ripping up the whole surrounding carpet, I find myself frustrated and angered that I didn’t know.

I didn’t know any door contained asbestos, let alone within the region where locks are installed, let alone in residential flats, let alone in the 1980s, let alone in quantities so great it presented ten times the exposure of sanding or drilling fibro.

I just need to convince myself not to think about what could happen to me, after all mesothelioma is untreatable.